The impact angle will depend on a number of variables including the dimensions of the vehicle, the vehicle’s turning circle and the width of the vehicle route.
Impact angles affect the total amount of kinetic energy that is transferred during impact. The shallower or more narrow the angle, the less energy that is transferred. At 90 degrees, all of the energy is transferred during impact.
To calculate this, you need the sine of the angle. Please see below the figures for common angles that may be used for the sinΘ calculation:
- Sin90 ° = 1
- Sin67.5 ° = 0.924
- Sin45 ° = 0.707
- Sin22.5 ° = 0.383
- Sin10 ° = 0.1736
For our example, we are using an impact angle of 90°. This means 'Θ’ = 1.
Let’s input this into our equation: